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Duration of Immunity to Canine Vaccines--Dr. Ronald Schultz

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#1
Kris L. Christine

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Duration of Immunity to Canine Vaccines: What We Know and Don't KnowRonald D. Schultz, Professor and ChairDepartment of Patho-biological SciencesSchool of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-MadisonIt has been common practice since the development of canine vaccines in the late 1950's to administer them annually. The recommendation to vaccinate annually was based on the assumption that immunity would wane in some dogs, thus to ensure immunity in the population, all dogs required revaccination since it was not practical to test each animal for antibody. Little or no research has been done to demonstrate that the practice of annual revaccination has any scientific value in providing greater immunity than would be present if an animal was never revaccinated or was revaccinated at intervals longer than one year.In 1978 we recommended an ideal vaccination program would be one in which dogs and cats would be revaccinated at one year of age and then every third year thereafter (1). That recommendation was based on a general knowledge of vaccinal immunity, especially the importance of immunologic memory and on duration of protection after natural sub clinical or clinical infections as well as on limited studies we had performed with certain canine and feline vaccines. Since the mid 1970's we have done a variety of studies with various canine vaccines to demonstrate their duration of immunity. From our studies it is apparent, at least to me, that the duration of immunity for the four most important canine vaccines (core vaccines) that the duration of immunity is considerably longer than one year. Furthermore, we have found that annual revaccination, with the vaccines that provide long term immunity, provides no demonstrable benefit and may increase the risk for adverse reactions. We have assessed duration of protective immunity primarily by two procedures; the first is held to be the "gold standard and that is to challenge the vaccinated animal with the virulent organism, the second method is to measure antibody and compare the antibody titer to that which is known to prevent infection (e.g. provide sterile immunity). The studies we report here include challenge studies as well as studies that determine antibody titers. A summary of our results show the following (Table 1).Table 1: Minimum Duration of Immunity for Canine Vaccines CORE VACCINES Table 1: Minimum Duration of Immunity for Canine VaccinesVaccine / Minimum Duration of Immunity / Methods Used to Determine Immunity Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) Rockborn Strain 7 years/15 years challenge/serology Onderstepoort Strain 5 years/9 years challenge/serologyCanine Adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) 7 years/9 years challenge-CAV-1/serologyCanine Parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) 7 years challenge/serologyCanine Rabies 3 years/7 years challenge/serologyNON-CORE VACCINES Canine parainfluenza 3 yrs. serology Bordetella bronchiseptica 9 months challenge Leptospira interrogans ser. canicola ? Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiac ? Borrelia burgdorfen 1 yr. challenge Giardia ? Canine Coronavirus Lifetime (whether vaccinated or not vaccinated) Challenge / serology The minimum duration of immunity data does not imply that all vaccinated dogs will be immune for the period of time listed, nor does it suggest that immunity may not last longer (e.g. the life of the dog). The percentage of vaccinated animals protected from clinical disease after challenge with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in the present study was greater than 95%.Although there is much more that we need to know about duration of immunity to canine vaccines the information we have at present provides adequate justification for the vaccination recommendations that I and others have made and continue to make regarding frequency of vaccination (2)1. Schultz, RD. and F.W. Scott. Canine & Feline Immunization. In: Symposium on Practical Immunology. R.D. Schultz, Ed., Vet Clinics of N. Am., Nov. 1978, W.B. Saunders Co.2. Schultz, R.D. Current and Future Canine and feline vaccination programs. Vet Med 3: No. 3, 233-254, 1998.

#2
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Made this a sticky as well. :purpthumbsup:

#3
Guest_hlboyz_*

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I'd say it's still safe to do a 3 year protocol at the most! :purpthumbsup: And no worries about the seniors either. I figure after age 12..... if the 7 years is good to go as well. That would put it at only 4 or so core vaccinations total after the puppy shots - quite a difference in the amount of vaccinating!

#4
Puffalicious Momma

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Julius gets his 3 yr rabies in March.......hate vaccination time..I get worried esp after what happened to my Haley ....he got the 1 yr last year...should I do a tither?

#5
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Yu, you need to follow the law, ie get a 3 year labeled rabies vaccination. This is the norm, a one year and then 3 years just as you are doing. If there wasn't a problem before then no worries. Without any real reason to not vaccinate or do a titer, I wouldn't change anything. Rabies is a HUGE issue in Florida and you really 1) don't want them unprotected and 2) legally at risk if they nip accidently. If you are using any type of boarding facility, training classes, etc. they will have to be current on their vaccinations. Fortunately for your boyz they are young and haven't been through the shelter system where they get vaccinated over and over again and the oldsters which had to be vaccinated yearly in the past.

#6
puffornot

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Yes, as I found out, titers are not accepted by the officials. If your state allows medical waivers you can discuss with your vet obtaining such a waiver, in which case I would also get a titer so you have the "back-up" that your dog has immunity. But you will likely still run into a lot of flack if something happens with a bite.

#7
Laura

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There is some controversy around the usefulness of titers in determining rabies immunity. I'd vaccinate every three years if I had to, as long as my dog is healthy. A dog that is chronically ill should be given a medical exemption, IMO. I believe the vaccine labels even state that vaccine should only be given to healthy dogs.

#8
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Yeah, last June we even did a titer for Albi (plenty of antibodies) along with his letter to the county. Highly unlikely he would be in the position to snag one of his few teeth on someone but a scratch.... hmmm. Never know and I take no chances. It was expensive though. One of the clinics here is doing a titer workshop in April so I checked the prices and since they are shipping everyone's samples at one time a considerable savings at $70 per rabies, and $82 per distemper. Yu, if you feel you want to, just PM me as you probably could have your boyz done at the same time even if you have to make a bit of a drive, still probably worth it in terms of $ if you don't know anyone down your way who is doing one.I think I am going to do Giz, seeing as he will be getting a letter soon to the county as well that he won't be getting another rabies vaccination. Maybe even a distemper titer too seeing as how I am getting both for the same price I paid for the rabies titer last year. I will feel better and have my arse covered too. I just hope the numbers come back sufficient!

#9
Kris L. Christine

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There is some controversy around the usefulness of titers in determining rabies immunity.

Laura' date='If you click on this link, you will be taken to an article on vaccinations by Dr. W. Jean Dodds and Dr. Ronald Schultz [url']http://www.chinesecrestedcrush.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=444108#444108[/url] in which they respond to a question about titers that:Q. Are serum antibody titres useful in determining vaccine immunity? A. Yes. They are especially useful for CDV, CPV-2 and CAV-1 in the dog, FPV in the cat, and rabies virus in the cat and dog. Rabies titers, however, are often not acceptable to exempt individual animals from mandated rabies boosters in spite of medical justifcation. Serum antibody titers are of limited or no value for (many of) the other vaccines.




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