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Poison Facts

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Poison Facts Are you aware of what's poisonous for your pet? Foods: Chocolate, tea, coffee & cola Nuts Onions Potatoes Turkey Skin Poisonous Houseplants Poisonous Outdoor Plants Poisonous Household Items Poisonous Animals Foods Chocolate, tea, coffee, cola: It is not chocolate itself that is poisonous to dogs, it is the theobromine, a naturally occurring compound found in chocolate. Theobromine causes different reactions to different dogs: dogs with health problems, especially epilepsy, are more affected by theobromine than healthy dogs. Theobromine can trigger epileptic seizures in dogs prone to or at risk of epilepsy. The size of the dog will also be a major factor: the smaller the dog, the more affected it is by the same amount than a larger dog. Therefore, toxicity is described on a mg/Kg basis. Furthermore, theobromine can cause cardiac irregularity, especially if the dog becomes excited. Cardiac arrhythmia can precipitate a myocardial infarct which can kill the dog. Theobromine also irritates the GI tract and in some dogs can cause internal bleeding which in some cases kills them a day or so later. Theobromine is also present in differing amounts in different kinds of chocolate. Milk chocolate has 44-66 mg/oz, dark chocolate 450 mg/oz and baking/bitter chocolate or cocoa powder varies as much as 150-600 mg/oz. How much chocolate a dog can survive depends on its weight (and other unknown circumstances). Under 200 mg theobromine per kg body weight no deaths have been observed. Theobromine will stay in the bloodstream between 14 and 20 hours. It goes back into the bloodstream through the stomach lining and takes a long time for the liver to filter out. Within two hours of ingestion, try inducing vomiting unless your dog is markedly stimulated, comatose, or has lost the gag reflex. If your dog has eaten a considerable amount of chocolate, or displays any of the above symptoms, take it to the vet without delay. In the absence of major symptoms, administer activated charcoal. The unabsorbed theobromine will chemically bond to this and be eliminated in the feces. In pinch, burnt (as in thoroughly burnt, crumbling in hand) toast will do. back to top Nuts: Walnuts are poisonous to dogs and should be avoided. In particular, there is a type of fungus common to walnuts (especially wet deadfall walnuts) that will cause severe episodes of seizuring. Many nuts are not good for dogs in general, their high phosphorous content is said to possibly lead to bladder stones. back to top Onions: Onions, especially raw onions, have been shown to trigger hemolytic anemia in dogs. (Stephen J Ettinger, D.V.M and Edward C. Fieldman, D.V.M. 's book: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine vol. 2 pg 1884.) Also: Six Cases of Heinz Body Haemolytic Anaemia Induced by Onion and/or Garlic Ingestion - CM Edwards and CJ Belford Aust.Vet.Prac. 26 (1) March 1996, 18-22. back to top Potatoes: Potato poisonings among people and dogs have occurred. Solanum alkaloids can be found in in green sprouts and green potato skins, which occurs when the tubers are exposed to sunlight during growth or after harvest. The relatively rare occurrence of actual poisoning is due to several factors: solanine is poorly absorbed; it is mostly hydrolyzed into less toxic solanidinel; and the metabolites are quickly eliminated. Note that cooked, mashed potatoes are fine for dogs, actually quite nutritious and digestible. back to top Turkey Skin: Turkey skin is currently thought to cause acute pancreatis in dogs. back to top -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Poisonous Houseplants (from Carlson & Giffin) In assessing the risk to your dog from these plants, you need to consider both the age of your dog and its propensity to chew on plants. Many of the below toxic plants rarely cause problems because most dogs don't chew them -- the exceptions being, of course, young puppies who are inclined to explore the world with their mouths, teething dogs who may chew on everything, and older dogs that are simply fond of chewing. Oleander, for example, is rather toxic, but most cases of poisoning involve 1) cattle, other grazing livestock 2) puppies and 3) human babies/toddlers. Dumb cane is probably the one plant that should always be kept out of reach, since it takes only one nibble to have a potentially fatal situation. Plants that give a rash after contact with the skin or mouth: chrysanthemum poinsettia creeping fig weeping fig spider mum pot mum (mums might produce dermatitis) Plants that cause irritation (toxic oxalates), especially the mouth gets swollen; tongue pain; sore lips; some swell so quickly a tracheotomy is needed before asphyxiation: arrowhead vine majesty boston ivy neththytis ivy colodium pathos emerald duke red princess heart leaf (philodendron) split leaf (phil.) saddle leaf (phil.) marble queen Toxic plants - may contain wide variety of poisons. Most cause vomiting, abdominal pain, cramps. Some cause tremors, heart and respiratory and/or kidney problems, which are difficult for owner to interpret: amaryllis elephant ears pot mum asparagus fern glocal ivy ripple ivy azalea heart ivy spider mum bird of paradise ivy sprangeri fern creeping charlie jerusalem cherry umbrella plant crown of thorns needlepoint ivy back to top -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Poisonous Outdoor Plants (from Carlson & Giffin) Plants that produce vomiting and diarrhea in some cases: delphinium poke weed indian tobacco daffodil bittersweet woody wisteria castor bean ground cherry soap berry indian turnip fox glove skunk cabbage larkspur Plants that may produce vomiting, abdominal pain, and in some cases diarrhea: horse chestnut buckeye western yew apricot, almond rain tree monkey pod english holly peach, cherry privet wild cherry mock orange japanese plum american yew bird of paradise balsam pear english yew black locust Plants that yield varied toxic effects: rhubarb buttercup moonseed spinach nightshade may apple sunburned potatoes poison hemlock dutchman's breeches tomato vine jimson weed mescal bean loco weed pig weed angel's trumpet lupine water hemlock jasmine dologeton mushrooms matrimony vine dumb cane Plants that function as hallucinogens: marijuana periwinkle morning glory peyote nutmeg loco weed Plants that cause convulsions: china berry nux vomica coriaria water hemlock moon weed back to top -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Poisonous Household Items Acetaminophen AntiFreeze Aspirin Bleach Boric Acid Brake Fluid Carbon Monoxide Carburetor Cleaner Christmas Tinsel Cleaning Fluid Deodorants/Deodorizers Detergents Disinfectants Drain Cleaner Dye Fungicides Furniture Polish Gasoline Hair Colorings Herbicides Insecticides Kerosene Laxatives Lead Lye Matches Metal Polish Mineral Spirits Mothballs Nail Polish & Remover Paint & Remover Perm Solutions Phenol Photo Developer Rat Poison Rubbing Alcohol Shoe Polish Sleeping Pills Soaps Suntan Lotions Tar Turpentine Windshield Fluid Woodstains back to top -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Poisonous Animals Bufo Toads Found in various areas, especially in south Florida. Very poisonous -- it can kill a small dog in a matter of minutes. It burns the mucous membrane of the mouth (gums) which is why they drool and foam, and that's also how it enters the bloodstream. It kills by elevating the heart rate and blood pressure to deadly levels, similar to the effects of chocolate. There is an antidote and the effects can be lessened if you immediately flush the dog's mouth with water before taking it to the vet. back to top -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Inducing Vomiting If you need to induce vomiting, first make sure that it's appropriate to do so. Don't induce vomiting: more than two hours after ingesting problematic substance when the substance is an acid, alkali, solvent, or petroleum product, as it will do as much damage on the way up as it did the way down when dog is comatose or very depressed To induce vomiting: 1 teaspoon hydrogen peroxide per 30lbs body weight; give once, repeat after ten minutes; don't administer more than three times; some dogs will drool and look miserable before vomiting 1 teaspoon syrup of Ipecac per 10lbs body weight; works quickly 1/2 to 1 teaspoon salt placed far back on the tongue or dissolved in 1 oz water; do not repeat dosage; dry mustard powder (same instructions) may be substituted back to top

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